Common Name: HOOKLESS CRAYFISH
Scientific Name: Procambarus (Leconticambarus) pubischelae deficiens Hobbs
Rarity Ranks: G5T4/Not Ranked
State Legal Status: None
Federal Legal Status: None
Description: The overall color of the Hookless Crayfish is tan to brown. Some specimens have a pale stripe down the entire length of the body while others lack this stripe and have more of a speckled appearance (Hobbs 1981). Striped individuals also have dark speckles on the carapace. The claws are brown with darker tubercles and on adult males there is a conspicuous brush of setae along the mesial margin of the palm. On females and younger males, there is a single row of irregular tubercles along the mesial margin of the palm. The areola is fairly wide and the rostrum gradually tapers and is rather spoon-shaped; there are no marginal spines or tubercles. This species reaches a maximum total body length of about 54 mm (2.1 in).
Similar Species: The combination of characters above should serve to separate the Hookless Crayfish from all others with which it might occur except the closely related Brushpalm Crayfish, Procambarus p. pubischelae. These two subspecies are probably interbreeding where their ranges meet and it will take careful examination of the male reproductive structure to separate the two. Refer to Hobbs (1981) for a detailed explanation of this taxonomic situation.Habitat: The Hookless Crayfish is considered a secondary burrower (Hobbs 1981) and is thus found in open water and simple burrows in ditches and other temporary aquatic habitats where the water table is near the surface of the ground. The burrows it constructs are typically relatively simple compared to those of primary burrowing species.
Diet: No studies of the Hookless Crayfish are known. Crayfishes are considered opportunistic omnivores and likely feed on live and decaying vegetation, aquatic insect larvae, small fishes, and dead animal matter.
Life History: Male Hookless Crayfish in reproductive condition have been collected in April, June, August, September, October, and December. In Georgia, one female carrying eggs was found in March, two in May, and three in October. Females with young were found in March, September, and October. The smallest breeding male known is about 38 mm (1.5 in) and the smallest female with eggs or young is 42 mm (1.7 mm) in length (Hobbs 1981).
Survey Recommendations: Burrowing crayfishes may be collected by direct excavation of their burrows, by trapping, and during night surveys. Excavating burrows is time consuming and can be very difficult. It also results in destruction of the animals’ burrow. Traps made with PVC pipes or mist nets can be effective. Burrowing crayfishes are sometimes captured around the openings of their burrows on damp nights. Active burrows are typically found from about mid-March to mid-November if the water table is within about two feet of the surface of the ground. When rains fill the temporary habitats this species inhabits, and the mouths of their burrows are inundated, they may be caught by seining or dipnetting
Range: The Hookless Crayfish is found primarily in the northernmost headwaters of the Satilla River system and between the Satilla and Altamaha River basins. There is a single record on the north side of the Altamaha just below the confluence of the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers. The intergrade zone between Hookless Crayfish and Brushpalm Crayfish is in the Alapaha and Withlacoochee systems of the Suwannee Basin and in the upper Satilla River system (Hobbs 1981).
Threats: This species is apparently secure across its range.
Conservation and Management Recommendations: General watershed level protection measures will help secure the continued existence of the Hookless Crayfish in Georgia. These include the protection of riparian zones, control of sediment and nutrient runoff from farms and construction sites, and limiting the amount of impervious cover (e.g., pavement) within occupied watersheds. Non-native crayfishes should never be used for bait. Instead, anglers should use crayfishes collected from the river system they will be fishing in and should never release unused bait crayfish back into Georgia waters.
Hobbs, H. H., Jr. 1981. The crayfishes of Georgia. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 318:1-549.
Taylor, C. A., G. A. Schuster, J. E. Cooper, R. J. DiStefano, A. G. Eversole, P. Hamr, H. H. Hobbs III, H. W. Robison, C. E. Skelton, and R. F. Thoma. 2007. A reassessment of the conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada after 10+ years of increased awareness. Fisheries 32(8):372-389.
Date Compiled or Updated: September 2012